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5分钟告诉你,怎样不通读全文也能做对雅思阅读的40道题!

发布日期:2022-03-03 浏览次数:402

5分钟告诉你,怎样不通读全文也能做对雅思阅读的40道题!


了解过雅思阅读的小伙伴都知道,阅读考试要在60分钟之内读3篇1100-1300字的文章并完成40道题,所以,如果雅思阅读有哪些考试tips,那第一个很可能是“放弃读完全篇再做题的执念”。


那怎样才能在不通读文章的情形下依然把题目做出来?其实方法不唯一,今天给大家介绍一个方法:当我们阅读一篇文章时,除了要从词句的层面去分析信息,文章结构所提供的信息对我们解题也非常有帮助,只要利用好文章结构的特点,40道题也会变得容易。


具体到底怎么操作呢?


首先,拿到题目时,不要对着题目直接开垦,先看看有哪些题目类型,有的题型答案在文段出现的顺序和题目顺序是相符的,而有的则不然,先看好题型,方便稍后在做题时利用题目顺序的特点,边读边解题。看好题型后,开始阅读文章,但不要直接陷进细节题里,全文找定位,而是先阅读标题和每段的首句(通常也叫主题句),让自己对整篇文章的结构做到心里有数。


具体的操作我们以真题Nature or Nurture 为例。这是一篇与心理学相关的说明文,文章整体难度虽然较大,但是通过读每段的首句不难发现,这篇文章具备实验类文体的典型特征。


实验类文体通常结构严谨,相对其他文体它的整体结构更为固定,如下所示:


1. 引入实验,介绍实验目的;

2. 实验的环节 ;

3. 实验的开展过程 ;

4. 实验的结果;

5. 对实验结果进行分析和解读;

6. 回顾/总结


以下是文章每段的第一句话(主题句),通过主题句就可以得知整段的中心:


P1. A few years ago, in one of the most fascinating and disturbing experiments in behavioral psychology, Stanley Milgram of Yale University tested 40 subjects from all walks of life for their willingness to obey instructions given by a ‘leader’ in a situation in which the subjects might feel a personal distaste for the actions they were called upon to perform.

几年前,耶鲁大学的Stanley Milgram进行了一项行为心理学试验。 引进主题,介绍背景。


P2.  Milgram’s experimental set-up involved placing the teacher-subject before a panel of thirty switches with labels ranging from ‘15 volts of electricity (slight shock)’ to ‘450 volts (danger — severe shock)’ in steps of 15 volts each.

通过experimental set-up可知,这个部分是介绍实验的设置,如实验对象的选择,实验的具体参数等。


P3.  As the experiment unfolded, the pupil would deliberately give the wrong answers to questions posed by the teacher...

通过As the experiment unfolded 可得出这里陈述的是整个实验过程。


P4. Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists and asked them to predict the average percentage of people in an ordinary population who would be willing to administer the highest shock level of 450 volts.

该段介绍在实验前,时神经学家们对结果的预测。


P5. What were the actual results? Well...

介绍真实的实验结果。


P6. One’s first inclination might be to argue that there must be some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct that was activated by the experiment...

进行实验结果的分析1——动物本能


P7.  An alternative to this notion of genetic programming is to see the teacher-subjects’ actions as a result of the social environment under which the experiment was carried out.

进行实验结果的分析2——社会环境


P8.Thus, in this explanation the subject merges his unique personality and personal and moral code with that of larger institutional structures, surrendering individual properties like loyalty, self-sacrifice and discipline to the service of malevolent systems of authority.

进行实验结果的分析3——个人特性v.s.权威


P9. Here we have two radically different explanations for why so many teacher-subjects were willing to forgo their sense of personal responsibility for the sake of an institutional authority figure.

最后一段回顾/总结。



下面,来看看是如何利用文章结构特点来解题的:


14-17为乱序段落信息匹配题:

14.a biological explanation of the teacher-subjects' behavior  

解:biological explanation 生物本能的解释,看到此处我们可知在结果分析段落中,而biological explanation是animal instinct 的同义替换,因此答案是在第六段。


15.the identity of the pupils

解: 题面意思是学生的身份,可以匹配到实验说明段,即第二段。


16.the expected statistical outcome

解:题面意思是预计的实验结果,可以匹配到实验前,神经学家预测的那段。


17.the way Milgram persuaded the teacher-subjects to continue

解:Milgram 说服学生继续试验,即是在实验过程中,所以可以对应到第三段。


23-25为判断题:

23. Several of the subjects were psychology students at Yale University.

解:对实验对象身份的介绍,并且通过Yale University 专有名词,可定位答案在第一段。

24. Some people may believe that the ‘teacher-subjects’ behavior could be explained as a positive survival mechanism.

解:对应到实验结果分析,而原文中的built-in animal aggression instinct和题目中的 positive survival mechanism为近义替换,可定位答案在第六段。

25. In a sociological explanation, personal values are more powerful than authority.

解:题面是个人价值和社会权威的比较,可直接定位答案在第八段。



以上就是如何利用文章结构特点定位答案的解题方案,如果大家还想了解更多关于雅思或雅思阅读的解题方法,欢迎持续关注