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掌握好这五大类同义替换,雅思听力轻松过关!

发布日期:2022-03-03 浏览次数:330

雅思考试不论听说读写哪一科,都会以各种形式考察考生的词汇资源(lexical resource)。词汇资源,除了我们通常想起的词汇量之外,更多是指考生使用词汇的丰富程度,以及辨识同义替换的能力。在雅思听力中,考生听题时如果能快速识别出听力内容和题目中对应的同义替换,要考出亮眼的听力成绩会容易很多。那么,什么是同义替换?同义替换在听力考试中有哪些类别,以及听题时又是怎么通过识别同义替换来吧题做对的?我们来一睹究竟吧!


同义替换,顾名思义就是同一个意思的不同表达形式。做听力题时,辨识同义替换有以下作用:

1. 帮助考生快速定位录音行进的位置;

2. 定位到信号词以及答案。

在雅思听力只放一遍录音的情况下,考生如果能通过快速识别同义替换把题做对,表明考生具备快速的反应能力和充足的词汇储备,也意味着考生在国外生活和学习时能够比较准确的听懂外国人说话。所以掌握同义替换对于我们听懂外国人的话,和把听力题做对,都十分重要。


那么,雅思听力中的同义替换都有哪些形式呢?

常见的同义替换有以下五类:

1. 近义词;

2. 短语与短语;

3. 上下义词;

4. 解释说明;

5. 句型转换。


下面一起来看看剑桥雅思真题中的例子,了解下怎样通过不同形式的同义替换解出正确答案的。


1.近义词

出处:剑12 Test 6 Section 4  

文章标题Conflict at work

Question 33

填空题Also caused by differences in ____________ between people。

对应听力原文: in some cases one person simply dislikes the other, on the basis that the personality of one is in some way incompatible with that of the other person.

我们可以在读题的时候可以预测到空缺的内容是一个名词,并且通过differences in可知答案是指有不同的某个“方面”。听力原文中的incompatible [ˌɪnkəmˈpætəbl] “矛盾的”对应题目中的differences,caused by “由于”对应原文中的on the basis that “基于”,因此我们可以判断本题填personality.

2. 短语与短语

出处:剑14 Test 1 Section 2

Questions 13 and 14. Choose Two letter, A-E

Which Two things does the manager say mentors can help with?

A confidence-building

B making career plans

C completing difficult tasks

D making a weekly timetable

E reviewing progress

对应听力原文: They’ll be asking you about what goals you’ve achieved so far, as well as helping you to identify any areas for improvement. You can also discuss your more long-term ambition with them as well。

不难得知as well as前后的内容就是答案。首先,出现在as well as位置之前的asking you about what goals you’ve achieved so far(讨论你至今为止完成的目标) 可以对应到E选项的reviewing progres,所以确定E为答案之一,而出现在 as well as 之后的identify any areas for improvement (确认任何可以改进的方面)以及 long-term ambition(长远的志向)可以对应到B选项making career plans,所以确定B选项也是答案。因此本题选B和E。


3.  上下义词

出处:剑 13 Test 1 Section 2

文章标题 Traffic changes in Granford

Question 12 选择题。

In a survey, local residents particularly complained about

A. dangerous driving by parents

B. pollution from trucks and lorries

C. inconvenience from parked cars

对应听力原文: People were very concerned about the lack of visibility on some roads due to cars parked along the sides of the roads.

原文中 due to cars parked along... 和选项 C中的from parked cars对应,而 lack of visibility (缺乏可见度)为inconvenience(不便)的下义词,即lack of visibility涵盖在inconvenience的意思范围内,两者形成意思上的对应,因此该题选C选项。


4.解释说明

解释说明是指题干中出现一个较大的或较抽象的概念的词,听力原文中没有直接说出这个词,而是用一段话来解释,将所表述的概念或者事物更加具体化,或者是用一个或者多个比较通俗易懂的例子来解释说明。

出处:剑12 Test 8 Section 2

Question 11

Which is the most rapidly-growing group of residents in the Sheepmarket area?

A. young professional people

B. students from the university

C. employees in the local market

听力对应原文: Now graduates embarking on careers in the worlds of fashion and design are buying up the new apartments recently built here to replace the small houses where the market workers used to live.

原文中  graduates embarking on careers in the worlds of fashion and design 为选项A young professional people的解释说明,因此该题答案为选项A。


5.句型转换(以主动语态与被动语态的转换为主)

出处:剑10 Test 1 Section 2

Question 14

The ___________ will be explained to you before you use the equipment.

听力对应原文:The trainer will then take you through the safety rules for using the equipment in the fitness suite.

从题目得知be explained(被解释)的内容和use the equipment有关,和听力原文中的the safety rules for using the equipment对应,而且题目中的 The ___________ will be explained(被动语态)和 The trainer will then take you through(主动语态)对应,因此得出safety rules为答案词。上面两个短句就是通过使用不同的语态调整了句型结构,但是意思没有发生根本改变。


以上就是常见的听力中出现的同义替换的类别,要掌握同义替换,烤鸭们做完听力真题后可以按照这五大类别整理笔记。

积累的同义替换越多,识别同义替换的能力越强,做题也更加得心应手噢!